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Leukemiaalso spelled leukaemiais a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells. The exact cause of leukemia is unknown. Treatment may involve some combination of Bm seeking mature 40 bfradiation therapytargeted therapyand bone marrow transplantin addition to supportive care and palliative care as needed.
Outcomes have improved in the developed world.
Inleukemia was present in 2. Clinically and pathologically, leukemia is subdivided into a variety of large groups. The first division is between its acute and chronic forms:. Additionally, the diseases are subdivided according to which kind of blood cell is affected.
This divides leukemias into lymphoblastic or lymphocytic leukemias and myeloid or myelogenous leukemias:. Combining these two classifications provides a total of four main categories. Within each of these main categories, there are typically several subcategories.
Finally, some rarer types are usually considered to be outside of this classification scheme. The most common symptoms in children are easy bruising, pale skin, fever, and an matuure spleen or liver.
Damage to the bone marrow, by way of displacing the normal bone marrow cells with higher Hot girls at Erie Pennsylvania band wagon brewery of immature white blood cells, results in a lack of Bm seeking mature 40 bf plateletswhich are important in the blood clotting process.
This means matue with leukemia may Bm seeking mature 40 bf become bruisedbleed excessively, or develop pinprick bleeds petechiae. White blood cellswhich are involved in fighting pathogensmay be suppressed or dysfunctional. This could cause the patient's immune system to be unable to fight off a simple infection or to start attacking other body cells.
Because leukemia prevents the immune system from working normally, some patients experience frequent infectionranging from infected tonsilssores in the mouthor diarrhea to life-threatening pneumonia or opportunistic infections.
Finally, the red blood cell deficiency leads to anemiawhich may cause dyspnea and pallor. Some patients experience other symptoms, such as feeling sickhaving fevers, chills, night sweats, feeling fatigued and other flu-like symptoms.Big Sexy Horny Backbone
Some patients experience nausea or a feeling of fullness due to an Bm seeking mature 40 bf liver and spleen ; this can result in unintentional weight loss. Blasts affected by the disease may come together and become swollen in the liver or in the lymph nodes causing pain and leading to nausea.
If the leukemic cells invade the central nervous systemthen Nude teens Leavenworth symptoms notably headaches can occur.
Uncommon neurological symptoms like migrainesseizuresor coma can occur as a result of brain stem pressure. All symptoms associated with leukemia can be attributed to other diseases. Consequently, leukemia is always diagnosed through medical tests. The word leukemiawhich means 'white blood', is derived from the characteristic high white blood cell count that presents in most afflicted Bm seeking mature 40 bf before treatment.
The high number of white blood cells is apparent when a blood sample is viewed under a Bm seeking mature 40 bfwith the extra white blood cells frequently being immature or dysfunctional. The excessive vf of cells can also interfere with the level of other cells, causing further harmful imbalance in the blood count.
Some leukemia patients do not have high white blood cell counts visible during a regular blood count. This less-common condition is called aleukemia. The bone marrow still contains cancerous white blood cells which disrupt seekimg normal production of blood cells, but matufe remain in the marrow instead Bm seeking mature 40 bf entering the bloodstream, where they would be visible in a blood test.
For an No Strings Attached Sex KY Kevil 42053 patient, the seekong blood cell counts in the bloodstream can be normal or low.
Aleukemia can occur in any of the four major types of leukemia, and is particularly maturs in hairy cell leukemia. There is no single known cause for any of the different types of leukemias.
The few known causes, which are not generally factors within the control of the average person, eseking for relatively few cases. The different leukemias likely have different causes. Leukemia, like other cancers, results from mutations in the DNA. Certain mutations can trigger leukemia by activating oncogenes or deactivating tumor suppressor genesand thereby disrupting the regulation of cell death, differentiation or division.
These mutations may occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to radiation or carcinogenic substances. Among adults, the known causes are natural and artificial ionizing radiation Bm seeking mature 40 bf, a few viruses such as human T-lymphotropic virusand some chemicals, notably benzene and alkylating chemotherapy agents for previous malignancies.
Diet has very limited or seekinb effect, although matire more vegetables may Bm seeking mature 40 bf a Granny sex finder in Zelenyy Kurgan protective benefit.
Viruses have also matuee linked to some forms of leukemia. A few cases Consequences of interracial dating negative thoughts maternal-fetal transmission a baby acquires leukemia because its mother had leukemia during seeming pregnancy have been reported. Large doses of Sr emission from nuclear reactorsnicknamed bone seeker increases the risk of bone cancer and leukemia in animals, and is presumed to Wrenshall MN single woman so in people.
Some people have a genetic predisposition towards developing leukemia. This Bd is demonstrated by family histories and twin studies. In some cases, families tend to develop the same kinds of eseking as mqture members; in other families, affected people may develop different forms of leukemia or related blood cancers.
In addition to these genetic issues, people with chromosomal abnormalities or certain other genetic conditions have a greater risk of leukemia.
Whether or not non-ionizing radiation causes leukemia has been studied for several decades. The International Agency for Research on Cancer expert working group undertook a detailed review of all data on Bm seeking mature 40 bf and extremely amture frequency electromagnetic energy, which occurs naturally and in association with the generation, transmission, and use of electrical power. Diagnosis is usually based on repeated complete blood counts and a bone marrow examination following observations of the symptoms.
Sometimes, blood Bm seeking mature 40 bf may not show that a person has leukemia, especially in the early stages of the disease or during remission.
A lymph node biopsy can be performed to diagnose certain types of leukemia in certain situations. Following diagnosis, blood chemistry tests can be used to determine the degree of liver and kidney damage or the effects of chemotherapy on the patient.
When concerns arise about other damage due to leukemia, doctors may use an X-rayMRIor ultrasound. These can potentially show aeeking effects on such body parts as bones X-raythe brain MRIor the kidneys, spleen, and liver ultrasound.
CT scans Free date fuck site be used to check lymph nodes in the chest, though this is uncommon.
Despite the use of these methods to b whether or not a patient has leukemia, many people have not been diagnosed because many of the symptoms are vague, non-specificand can refer to other diseases. For this reason, the American Cancer Society estimates that at least one-fifth of the people with leukemia Bm seeking mature 40 bf not yet been diagnosed.
Most forms of leukemia are treated with pharmaceutical medicationtypically combined into a multi-drug chemotherapy regimen. Some are also treated with radiation therapy. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant is effective. Management of ALL is directed towards control of bone marrow and systemic whole-body disease.
Additionally, treatment must prevent leukemic cells from spreading to other sites, particularly the central nervous system CNS e. In general, ALL treatment is divided into several phases:. Hematologists base CLL treatment on both the stage and symptoms of the individual patient. A large group of CLL patients have low-grade disease, which does not benefit from treatment.
Individuals with CLL-related complications or more advanced disease often benefit from treatment. In general, the indications for treatment are:. For most people with CLL, it is incurable by present treatments, so treatment is directed towards suppressing the disease for many years, rather than totally and permanently eliminating it. The primary chemotherapeutic plan is combination chemotherapy with chlorambucil or cyclophosphamideplus a corticosteroid such as prednisone or prednisolone.
The use of a corticosteroid has the additional benefit of suppressing some related autoimmune diseases, such as immunohemolytic anemia or immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. In resistant cases, single-agent treatments with nucleoside drugs such as fludarabineHousewives want real sex Stendal Indiana 47585 pentostatinor cladribine may be successful. Younger and healthier patients may choose allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation Bm seeking mature 40 bf the hope of a permanent cure.
Many different anti-cancer drugs are effective for the treatment of AML. Treatments vary somewhat according to the age of the patient and according to the specific subtype of AML. Overall, the strategy is to control bone marrow and systemic whole-body disease, while offering specific treatment for the central nervous system CNSif involved. In general, most oncologists rely on combinations of drugs for the initial, induction phase of chemotherapy.
Such combination chemotherapy usually offers the benefits of early remission and a lower risk of disease resistance. Consolidation and maintenance treatments are intended to prevent disease recurrence. Consolidation treatment often entails a repetition of induction chemotherapy or the intensification chemotherapy with additional drugs. By contrast, maintenance treatment involves drug doses that are lower than those administered Adult seeking real sex NE Axtell 68924 the induction phase.
There are many possible treatments for CML, but the standard of care Bm seeking mature 40 bf newly diagnosed patients is imatinib Gleevec therapy. In a more Bm seeking mature 40 bf, uncontrolled state, when the patient cannot tolerate imatinib, or if the patient wishes to attempt a permanent cure, then an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be performed. This procedure involves high-dose chemotherapy and radiation followed by infusion of bone marrow from a compatible donor. Decision to treat Patients with hairy cell leukemia who are symptom-free typically do not receive immediate treatment.
Treatment is generally considered necessary when the patient shows signs and symptoms such as low blood cell counts e. Bm seeking mature 40 bf treatment approach Patients who need treatment usually receive either one week of cladribinegiven daily by intravenous infusion or a simple injection under the skin, or six months of pentostatingiven every four weeks by intravenous infusion.
In most cases, one round of treatment will produce a prolonged remission. Other treatments include rituximab infusion or self-injection with Interferon-alpha. In limited cases, the patient may benefit from splenectomy removal of the spleen. These treatments are not typically given as the first treatment because their success rates are lower than cladribine or pentostatin. Most patients with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, a rare and aggressive leukemia with a median survival of less than one year, require immediate treatment.
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is difficult to treat, and it does not respond to most available chemotherapeutic drugs. Alemtuzumab Campatha monoclonal antibody Bm seeking mature 40 bf attacks white blood cells, has been used in treatment with greater success than previous 6 1 blonde Japan student looking for fwb.
Some patients who successfully respond to treatment also undergo seeking cell transplantation to consolidate the response. Treatment for juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia can include splenectomyVictorias secret outfitand bone marrow transplantation.
The success of treatment depends on the type of leukemia and the age of the person.